Power transformers are essential components of any power transmission and distribution system. The strong electrodynamic forces resulting from short-circuit faults in the power system and the high acceleration potentially emerging during transportation can give rise to severe deformations of the transformer windings and mechanical construction. Transformers can also be exposed to stress during installation and due to inrush current or seismic occurrences.

Consequently,  the mechanical construction and the windings of power transformers are subject to high mechanicalstress. Depending on the grade of the overstressing, this may cause mechanical deformation or defects of the transformer windings and magnetic core.